EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING
This paper focus on Effectives of training. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a specified job. This is done with a view to bring about improvement in an employee and thus enabling him to make his contribution in grater measure in meeting the goals and objective of the organization. Training remains as a key tool for enhancing job related performance and organization effectiveness, its value is being increasing acknowledge and changing the behavior and developing the skills, leading to performance growth. Training is given to the employee and increasing productivity, improving the quality, fulfilling future needs, improvement organization climate and for obsolescence
Employee training is an important sub-system of Human Resource Development Employee training is a specialized function and it is one the fundamental operative functions of Human Resource Management.
The area of industrial training which draws heavily on many Psychological Principles, has become increasingly important at all levels of organizational hierarchy in recent years. The training impacts new skills and old skills are enhanced, sharpened and refined.
Training is the art of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a Planned Process to modify attitude, Knowledge, Skill, behavior etc., through learning to acquire effective performance in an activity on range of activities.
Training is a practical and initial necessity; it enables employees to develop and rise within the organization and increases their market value, earning power and job security.
Live investment in plant and machinery, equipments etc., an organization improves its effectiveness to a large extent by investing in its HR for developing their skill, efficiency and motivation. Investments in human capital are in the form of training and management development.
DEFINITIONS OF TRAINING
According to stein Metz Lawrence.L. “Training is Short Term Process Utilizing the systematic and organized Procedure by which non-managerial Personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose”.
According to Richard P.Calhoon., “The process of aiding employees to gain effectiveness in their present and future work”.
According to Michael Armstrong, “The systematic development of the knowledge, Skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job”. According to Dales S.Beach, “The organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and / or skills for a definite purpose”.
MEANING OF TRAINING
Training is increasing the knowledge and skill of the employee for doing a particular job. Training is a Planned Process to modify Attitude, Knowledge, Skill, behavior etc., through learning to acquire effective performance in an activity on range of activities. The Performance of Training is to develop the ability of an individual to satisfy current and future manpower needs.
Purpose of Training
1. To increase quality and productivity
2. To help company fulfill its future Personal needs
3. To improve organizational climate
4. To improve health and safety of personnel
5. To address Personal growth and prevent obsolescence
6. To develop innovativeness and creativity
7.To improve interpersonal communication, leadership and team work.
EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING
Effectiveness means producing an intended result. The effectiveness of training is very important factor. It means how effective the Training Program.
Measuring the effectiveness of training programs consumes valuable time and resources, these things are in short supply in organizations today.
Many training programs fail to deliver the expected organizational benefits. Having a well – structured measuring system in place can help to determine where the problem lies. On a positive note, being able to demonstrate a real and significant benefit to organization from the training. So the company should follow effective training.
Consider also that the business environment is not standing still. The competitors, technology, legislation and regulations are constantly changing. What was a successful program yesterday may not be a cost-effective program tomorrow. Being able to measure results will help us adapt to such changing circumstances.
THE KIRKPATRICK MODEL
Organizations are under pressure to justify various expenses. The training budget is, often, not exempted from this purview. There are a number of questions raised on the value derived from training programmes—both directly and indirectly. Business heads and training managers are under pressure to prove the effectiveness of training.
The most well-known and used model for measuring the effective of training programs was developed by Donald Kirkpatrick in the late 1950s. It has since been adapted and modified by a number of writers; however, the basic structure has well stood the test of time. The basis structure of kirkpatrick’s four-level model is shown here.
Kirkpatrick Model for Evaluating Effectiveness of Training Programs
Level 4- Results – What Organizational benefits resulted from the Training?
Level 3-Behavior – To what extent did participants change their
behavior back in the workplace as a result of the Training?
Level 2- Learning – To what extent did participants change their
behaviour back in the workplace as a result of the training?
Level 1- Reaction – How die participants react to the program?
Level 1: Reactions
At this level, we measure the participants’ reaction to the programme. This is measured through the use of feedback forms (also termed as “happy-sheets”). It throws light on the level of learner satisfaction. The analysis at this level serves as inputs to the facilitator and training administrator. It enables them to make decisions on continuing the programme, making changes to the content, methodology, etc.
Level 2: Learning
We measure changes pertaining to knowledge, skill and attitude. These are changes that can be attributed to the training. Facilitators utilize pre-test and post-test measures to check on the learning that has occurred. However, it is important to note that learning at this level does not necessarily translate into application on the job.
Measuring the effectiveness of training at this level is important as it gives an indication about the quantum of change vis-à-vis the learning objectives that were set. It provides critical inputs to fine-tuning the design of the programme. It also serves the important aspect of being a lead indicator for transfer of learning on to the job context.
Level 3: Behavior
At this level, we measure the application of the learning in the work context, which is not an easy task. It is not easy to define standards that can be utilized to measure application of learning and there is always this question that preys on the minds of various people: ‘Can all changes be attributed to the training?’
- Inputs at this level can come from participants and their supervisors. It makes sense to obtain feedback from the participants on the application of learning on the job. This can be done a few weeks after the programme so that it gives the participants sufficient time to implement what they have learnt. Their inputs can indicate the cause of success or failure; sometimes it is possible that learning was good at level-2, but implementation did not happen due to system-related reasons. It can help the organization deal with the constraints posed by systems and processes so that they do not come in the way of applying learning.
Level 4: Results
This measures effectiveness of the programme in terms of business objectives. At this level we look at aspects such as increase in productivity, decrease in defects, cycle time reduction, etc.
Many organizations would like to measure effectiveness of training at this level; the fact remains that it is not very easy to do this, as it is improbable that we can show direct linkage. However, it is worthwhile making the attempt even if the linkage at this level is indirect.
It is possible for organizations to measure effectiveness for all programmes at level-1 and level-2. This can be built into the design of the training programme.
He found that it is easy to measure training programmes related to technical and functional areas at level-3 and level-4. It is not easy to do this with behavioral skills programmes. Organizations that choose to measure training effectiveness can start with the former category before moving to measuring behavioral skills at level-3 and level-4.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
- To increase the knowledge of workers in doing specific jobs.
- To import new skills among the workers systematically so that they learn quickly.
- To bring about change in the attitudes of the workers towards fellow workers, supervisor and the organization.
- To improve the overall performance of the organization.
- To reduce the number of accidents by providing safety training to workers
- To prepare workers for higher jobs by developing advanced skills in them.
The training program wants to conduct in every organization because it will help the employees in developing the updates skills where by new methodology and knowledge is given together handling, analyzing them for effectively and solving organizational problems. It is therefore evident that a training method is not an end in itself but a means to achieve certain specific objective.
- P.Subba Rao, “Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations”, “Himalaya Publishing House”, (1996)
- N.Ramaswami “A Hand Book of Training and Development”, T.R. Publications”, Chennai, (1995)
- P.C.Tripath “Personnel Management and Industrial Relations”, “Sultan chand and sons”, New Delhi, (1978)
- Stephen P.Robbins “organizational behaviour” Ninth Edition
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