The concept of science fair has been come down to us from European education pattern and their growth of culture. They firstly thought ” Science fair must be based on creativity by cultivating knowledge and intelligence of the learners”. Indeed, science fair needs to be introduced in different educational institutions by considering its pedagogical phenomena based on practical knowledge and skills. Hence, there is no alternate of practical knowledge to gain proper education in the field of Science and Technology and hence the steps for science fair is needed as a taken of creativity and awareness for acquiring knowledge among the students. Hence, the steps for science fair in the educational institute are ideally envisaged and contemporary.
In our country, every year science fair is held in different educational institute annually to create motivation of research work and enthusiasm. The teachers first collect the names and list them that they will create a project based on science and technology. The students who are found interested to introduce a new science work take a challenge and become capable of showing a different creative work. He selects a project and thinks over the work and the nature of technology behind it. Actually, he becomes responsible of inventing something like a scientist. So, it is found off and on that the students are being able to show a nice presentation in science fair. He sometimes shows something different from modern age. They can project from ancient and mediaeval age.
The authority of different schools and colleges arrange science fair in order to show the eagerness of actual knowledge and skills among the students. At this, a congenial atmosphere is developed in the institution because, they are concerning their heads about new inventions and discovery and they become conscious of awakening their ideas and thoughts. In the context of Bangladesh, every year different schools and colleges arrange science fair. They first invite names from the interested students who are willing to make the project work and to focus it in the science fair. They, like the scientists carry on research work like making law, hypothesis and theory. They seek respective ideas from different books and the achievement of scientists of the world. At last they present their creativity and thus a systematic project is reflected.
Arranging science fair is a significant step of different educational institutions through which an intensified effort is led to flourish and enrich the knowledge and skills on application of science for the students. It is hoped in future that the steps to arrange science fair is a predominating criteria to strengthen the cultivation of knowledge in applying the definitive sense of technical know- how of science. A science fair is quite different from other fairs existing in our country like a village fair and an industrial fair and so on. These fairs serve the purpose of the business where the commodities of qualitative nature are sold and displayed for making profit in question. Here, the commodities are served in the market in such a manner, where the companies good will and the nature and quality of product are vividly disclosed so that the people are much attracted to purchase it to a great extent. Besides this, in organizing science fair, the business importance is not treated as the prime factor; rather the pedagogical manifestation to gear up the intensity and potentiality of the students is given priority. Actually, the eagerness for knowing the unknown world is reflected and a better environment is flourished among the students in any educational institute where science and technology are studied extensively. Even though, there has been provided a wide range to the students in European countries for creating a broad based project as a part of their education. The students who are found attracted for learning technological skills and knowledge generally shines in life by contributing a lot in the field of education. For science fair, the following things are important:
• Environment: Like western country, appropriate environment is needed where necessary equipment will play a vital role. In many cases, only theoretical teachings are offered beside practical knowledge and skills. It is a matter of great regret that the students are deprived of gaining actual knowledge in the relevant field. Besides this, technological instruments need to be placed in different institutions so that the utilization of those equipment are properly made in a systematic manner.
• Knowledge and skills relating to science fair: The teacher should select a number of topics before allocating on the project work to the students and they should give knowledge on the steps of spreading and analyzing the topics in question. He should engage himself in creating awareness and necessary skills in the field of the application of mathematical model of science based on constructive exploration of modern appliances. The teacher should set problems on real life situation like building a model of the relevant topics. The problems must be based on practically oriented which set forth the topics covering science and its technological aspects of nature. Assuming in a teaching classroom, on Modern and electronic physics is going on. The students are feeling boring because the teacher was not well dressed and well rested. Rather he has arrived late and he has not greeted them. Some students do not understand his lecture. He is running fast. He is not identifying and helping the less able students. In this case, despite his sound knowledge in the relevant field of modern physics, he may not be treated as a good teacher. Henry Fayol defines a teacher as an active student of the students who can play very much attractive and fascinate role upon overall performances in the class. An ideal teacher needs to play a vital role in active advisor among the students. He needs to be careful about the criteria on Control, Guide, Consult and Facilitate. He should have meaningful learning experience with which he can produce constructive and mathematical presentation for creating awareness for teaching in a significant manner.
Being a science teacher, his attitude may vary according to the nature of the students’ subject area and to substantiate the actual skills. He needs to be very careful in using his voice for effective teaching. In our country, in many cases, the parents regarding performance of the teacher lodge complaints. A good teacher need not be excited and agitated towards the students. He should give chance to ask question to the students so that transfer of behaviour is made possible in a significant manner. According to Franchise Bacon, there are two types of learning: One is Pedagogy- children’s learning and the other is Andragoggy- Adult learning. In case of adult learning, we cannot teach anybody, we only help him or her to learn. So in the case of using our voice we need to be responsible and tactful.
That is to say, a teacher’s behaviour will be in such, which must attract the students for effective and efficient delivery of the relevant topics.
In delivering lecture on the topics of science, there are limitations, which may create hindrance to learning on the part of the students. Sometimes the lecture may be monotonous and boring due to continuous saying and without emphasising practical orientation and presentation on the applicability of science and technology. If there exists dryness amongst the students, the teacher should change the policy of his lecture. He should ask open-ended questions. Open ended questions help get the students involved. Assuming to know a particular thing, one may get interested if he is intended to know those particular items. In many cases, it is found that the teachers are not well experienced and they have no meaningful learning experience to show the actual answer of the problem and the topics. Even, without sufficient skills and knowledge, they are appointed as teacher which is totally insignificant. Some of the limitations of delivering a lecture are as follows:
To ask question for ‘Yes’/ No answer.
Not to ask open ended question to get people involved.
Not to use agitated words
Not to say repeatedly while delivering lecture
Not to ask meaningful questions
To ask several question at a time
Not to give feedback on answers yourself, or involve others
Not to give people a chance to absorb the question and answer it.
Not to welcome answers
To be critical in answering and asking questions.
An ideal science teacher needs to be well conversant about using the language. It is indispensable to create awareness and congenial atmosphere on the part of a teacher. The following are the different ways to improve lecture.
To manage intersperse lecture with opportunities to challenge and discuss what is being delivered. In case of critical problem, he needs to synchronise and simplify it so that the actual topics become easy and understandable.
To break the students into groups for exercises which develop lecture themes and need to be reported back and analysed. Specifically, in presenting nuclear and magnetic topics, he needs to show it with necessary apparatus and relevant calculations.
To use case studies, which challenge students to apply the teaching, they are being given. Normally, chapter wise topics are needed to diversify to present the topics on practical themes and critics.
To use Video record teaching sessions and analyse progress and results.
To use role-plays to demonstrate examples of what is said in lectures.
To split into teams which analyse the days lecture theme and give a resume of it on same / next day.
To be prepared to facilitate and contribute to discussions and help groups prepare feedback.
To develop feedback techniques on what a teacher observes groups doing.
Self will agent
Regarding the teaching method, the following are important to apply in teaching the students virtually.
Telling is not teaching
Age is not a bar to learn
Meaningful learning experience
Voice, image and body use
Practically oriented way of teaching
Repeat, Recap and Review
Visual Hearing and Feeling and F-ULLER
In view of the above, a good teacher selects any method to teach the students but according to Franchise Bacon, most of the good teachers select the sixth Rule of teaching that is ‘ Repeat, Recap, Review ‘ which is the most important one to make the teaching vitally effective, meaningful, fruitful and up to the mark
The reasons in support of the argument are stated as follows.
Repeat: According to Franchise Bacon, ‘when you tell something in the class to a group of students, it is only a saying but when you recapitulate it, repeat it and ask the question on the progress, it will be interacted and if you further emphasize the concept, they will be conversant with the relevant knowledge’. Indeed, incase of delivering an important message, if it is stated once-only 10% will be memorized but if it is stated 6 times then 90% are memorized after one year. So, reiteration/repetition is the most important tools for the teaching to make the topics rememberable. If the message is not remembered and understandable then the whole thing will be treated as useless.
Recap: It is generally meant by recap to go over again the vital point of the relevant contents. Using FULLE-R and VHF for better memorization can do the recap. As the first events are best memorized so to start with big message. Thereafter unusual event like cartoon, exercise etc. be used. Thirdly, linked event, here mnemonics or analogy can be used and lastly to end with big messages of fascination towards the topics. In this context, summing up the ideas to arrive the conclusion that is the gist in question to be communicated to the students as a good communicator of the teaching course. We should remember one thing that ‘ Telling is not teaching; we need to make teaching active and interesting; get students involved; see it from the student’s view; we should use VHF and FULL-R. According to Commoneus, a famous educationist, for an effective teaching, ‘only lecture is immaterial but in order to ornament it for better memorization, ideal approach, demonstration, visual display and varieties of attractions of the students are needed’
Review: A proverb always goes like ‘ To err is human’. It is human nature to forget the things/message, which is not reviewed that are we losing what we don’t review. To review we are to regularly sum up where we have reached and invited questions.
At the end of every topics if the teacher repeats, recap and review, ask questions and help them to answer properly, the trainees will be more motivated and conversant with the subjects and grasp it properly so that teaching will be effective and fruitful.
In view of the above, it is obvious that the role of teachers for science education cannot be ignored. The expansion of science fair is inevitable in the domain of practical oriented type of teachings where a student will achieve proper knowledge in creating constructive project work that will be ultimately helpful for the country. If the educational institutions emphasise technological aspects on science, the integrity to work in the field of science and its application of science fair will be enhanced intensively. As a result the country will be much benefited in due sense of technology.